Particles and nuclei: an introduction

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Known radioactive species were also added as tracers and their behaviour was compared with that of the unknown species to aid in the identification of the latter. Over the years, these radiochemical techniques have been used to isolate and identify some 34 elements from zinc atomic number 30 to gadolinium atomic number 64 that are formed as fission products.

The wide range of radioactivities produced in fission makes this reaction a rich source of tracers for chemical, biologic, and industrial use. Although the early experiments involved the fission of ordinary uranium with slow neutrons, it was rapidly established that the rare isotope uranium was responsible for this phenomenon.

Atomic nucleus

The more abundant isotope uranium could be made to undergo fission only by fast neutrons with energy exceeding 1 MeV. The nuclei of other heavy elements, such as thorium and protactinium , also were shown to be fissionable with fast neutrons; and other particles, such as fast protons, deuterons, and alphas, along with gamma rays, proved to be effective in inducing the reaction.

Fermi and his coworkers recognized the enormous potential of such a reaction if it could be controlled. On Dec. Once the war had ended, efforts were made to develop new reactor types for large-scale power generation, giving birth to the nuclear power industry. Nuclear fission. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction History of fission research and technology Fundamentals of the fission process Structure and stability of nuclear matter Induced fission Spontaneous fission The stages of fission The phenomenology of fission Fission fragment mass distributions Fission decay chains and charge distribution Prompt neutrons in fission Delayed neutrons in fission Energy release in fission Fission theory Nuclear models and nuclear fission Fission chain reactions and their control Uses of fission reactors and fission products.

Written By: Ellis P.

Particles and Nuclei: An Introduction to the Physical Concepts

See Article History. Alternative Titles: atomic fission, induced fission. Facts Matter.

Start Your Free Trial Today. This part shows that experiments designed to uncover the substructures of nuclei and nucleons have a similar conceptual basis, and lead to the present picture of all matter being constructed from a small number of elementary building blocks and a small number of fundamental interactions. The second part, Synthesis, shows how the elementary particles may be combined to build hadrons and nuclei. The fundamental interactions, which are responsible for the forces in all systems, become less and less evident in increasingly complex systems.

Such systems are in fact dominated by many-body phenomena. A section on neutrino oscillations and one on nuclear matter at high temperatures bridge the field of "nuclear and particle physics" and "modem astrophysics and cosmology. The seventh revised and extended edition includes new material, in particular the experimental verification of the Higgs particle at the LHC, recent results in neutrino physics, the violation of CP-symmetry in the decay of neutral B-mesons, the experimental investigations of the nucleon's spin structure and outstanding results of the HERA experiments in deep-inelastic electron- and positron-proton scattering.

The concise text is based on lectures held at the University of Heidelberg and includes numerous exercises with worked answers.

It has been translated into several languages and has become a standard reference for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses. Product details Format Hardback pages Dimensions x x Other books in this series. Add to basket. Fundamentals of Semiconductors Peter Y. General Relativity Norbert Straumann.

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Basic Semiconductor Physics Chihiro Hamaguchi. Mechanics Florian Scheck. Particle Accelerator Physics Helmut Wiedemann. High-Energy-Density Physics R. Understanding Acoustics Steven L. Back cover copy This well-known introductory textbook gives a uniform presentation of nuclear and particle physics from an experimental point of view. Table of contents Hors d'oeuvre. Review Text "The book 'Particles and Nuclei' represents a collection of fundamental topics in nuclear and particle physics and is divided in two parts.

This book presents itself as an easy going lecture for students taking a course in nuclear and particle physics but it can be Klaus Rith, Univ Erlangen-Nurnberg. Learn about new offers and get more deals by joining our newsletter. Sign up now.

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