DYNAMICAL PROCESSES IN ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS
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Looks like you are currently in Finland but have requested a page in the United States site. Would you like to change to the United States site? Stephen Wilson has published over scientific papers and reviews, principally in theoretical and computational chemistry and molecular physics, but also in computing science and numerical analysis.
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Wilson holds a D. Peter F. After a post-doctoral stint at the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics of the National Research Council of Canada, he began his academic career at the University of Arizona in Bernath has interests in high resolution spectroscopy of molecules with applications in astronomy and atmospheric science. He is the author of the textbook Spectra of Atoms and Molecules. Roy McWeeny 's academic career spans five decades. After a first degree in Physics Leeds University and a D.
In the mids he was an invited member of J. In a Special Issue of the International Journal of Quantum Chemistry Volume 60 was published in his honour: it contains sixty scientific papers, contributed by authors from many countries. Undetected location. NO YES.
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Home Subjects Chemistry Physical Chemistry. Selected type: Hardcover. We would like to express our sincere appreciation to all the authors of the chapters of the book. We would like to thank Prof. Michel Barat for writing foreword, and the Bentham Science Publishers, in particular, Manager Bushra Siddiqui, for their support and efforts.
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Preface - Pp. List of Contributors - Pp. Vortices in Atomic Processes - Pp. Cederbaum, Philipp V. Kryzhevoi, Alexander I. Smaller semiconductor clusters tens of atoms have structures and electronic properties that are only poorly understood at present.
The surfaces of these small clusters are less reactive than the surfaces of the bulk materials. The bulk "unit cell" appears to develop quite slowly with increasing size. With the rapidly advancing understanding of cluster species, the potential to use them in electronics and other devices remains a highly attractive goal. The study of nonlinear phenomena in optics originated with the development of the laser and has resulted in a number of exciting discoveries.
One nonlinear phenomenon of great interest is the soliton, a wave that propagates without distortion. Soliton pulses ranging from several hundreds of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds have been generated in optical fibers.
The distortion-less propagation of such pulses makes them of obvious interest for optical communications, because they can, in theory, transmit digital data at higher rates and over longer distances than is currently possible. Solitons in fibers have been realized using amplification and nonlinearity associated with stimulated Raman scattering. Solitons have also been generated in erbium-doped fiber lasers combined with undoped fibers.
So-called dark solitons—short dips in an otherwise continuous beam of light—are of interest for optical switching. Other nonlinear methods are being studied to generate coherent radiation. Lasers without inversion, that is, without the need for an auxiliary pumping process to produce a population inversion, have been investigated in the past with Raman interactions and resonant frequency conversion involving only two atomic states. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in this area with the development of concepts involving multilevel near-resonant systems. Nonlinear optical processes have also been employed to produce states of light that display distinctly quantum mechanical properties.
In the quantum theory of a mode of the electromagnetic field, two in-quadrature components are defined that play the role of canonical variables.
The uncertainty principle sets a limit on the accuracy with which both variables can be simultaneously measured, but it is of course possible to measure one with arbitrary accuracy at the expense of admitting large fluctuations in the other. Thus it is possible to produce ''squeezed" states of the field in which one of these components has very small quantum fluctuations. This capability opens the possibility of encoding and decoding information using that component that is relatively noise-free. Squeezed states can be produced in a variety of nonlinear optical processes.
Experiments with atomic beams and collections of two-level atoms in cavities, as well as three-wave mixing processes, have demonstrated noise reductions substantially below shot-noise levels. Squeezed states are of particular interest for the detection of gravitational waves, where the signal is so weak that it would ordinarily be masked by quantum noise.
Applications are anticipated in many situations in which it is important to enhance signal-to-noise ratios, and various spectroscopic applications have also been proposed. These experiments have upheld the so-called Bell inequalities predicted by quantum theory. However, there are still possible loopholes that prevent one from ruling out "realistic" theories with absolute certainty, and new experimental tests of quantum theory have been devised involving nonlinear optics.
Fundamental Processes of Atomic Dynamics
In these experiments a quasi-monochromatic beam of light is split by a nonlinear medium into two beams, each with a frequency half that of the original beam. Correlations in the positions at which the generated photons are detected, with fixed polarizations, replace the correlations in the polarizations of the emitted photons in the earlier, atomic cascade experiments.
These correlations are also subject to Bell-type inequalities. In particular, quantum theory predicts a nonlocal type of interference in spatially separated photon channels, and these effects have been observed. Progress continues to be made in the understanding of optical instabilities and chaos in lasers and nonlinear optical devices. During the past decade, it has been well established that chaos is by no means an unusual mode of behavior in such systems.
Indeed, experiments in this area were among the first to confirm various "universal" routes to chaos predicted theoretically. The focus more recently has been on spatiotemporal chaos associated with variations in the field.
Nonlinear and chaotic behavior in coupled diode lasers is also being studied, as are ways to control the onset of chaotic behavior. The same basic concepts of nonlinear dynamics are found in work on atoms and molecules in electric and magnetic fields and in the dynamics of lasers and nonlinear optical interactions. Laser cooling is a technique for transferring momentum, and therefore kinetic energy, from an atom or atomic ion to the photons of a laser beam, as described in Chapter 1.
Although first proposed in , and first demonstrated in , laser cooling has already been used to produce what some news stories have called the coldest particles in the universe. The lowest temperatures, in three dimensions, that have been demonstrated thus far have been limited by the recoil of the atom from single-photon emission.
itlauto.com/wp-includes/mspy/2719-surveiller-le.php This "recoil limit" is of the order of 1 mK for optical transitions. At this temperature, atomic velocities are of the order of 1 cm sec -1 , and the corresponding de Broglie wavelengths are several hundred nanometers. Accessing this temperature regime, coupled with the parallel development of methods for trapping atoms and ions by their interaction with external fields, has enabled new and far-reaching opportunities for scientific investigations and technological applications.