Continuum Mechanics Through the Twentieth Century A Concise Historical Perspective

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Thus, a distinctly modernist view of art was accompanied by a distinctly modernist, as opposed to postmodernist, view of science and medicine as unquestionably superior forms of consciousness and practice, even to art. Through the literal framing of the posters, their hanging according to the conventions of art galleries, their arrangement three or four to a single wall , and the choice of them in terms of the quality of their visual language Bildersprache , the organisers denuded them of the local contexts in which they were created and in which they were engaged with politically, intellectually and emotionally.

This absenting can probably be illustrated by paying close attention to the history of any one of the posters in the exhibition.

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The first two of these were among the five British examples of posters in the exhibition. That they were not issued by the state is important, for they were in fact conveying messages alternative to it. It only needs observing that in the UK this development was significantly different from elsewhere; bearing upon it were the particularities of social and cultural traditions as well as prevailing political, medical and legal circumstances.

Yet it was precisely these features that the Hamburg exhibition eclipsed by having the images hung alongside foreign advertisements and alongside AIDS posters from China and elsewhere.

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The exhibition thereby performed not for the struggle for gay identity within a national context, but for world solidarity. Nor could it be known from either of these images that the changes in gay identity that occurred in Britain in the s were, in part, largely attributable to the uptake of a slick visual language borrowed from the culture of Madison Avenue-driven international advertising—the same visual language, from the same source, that was simultaneously taken up by Thatcher and other politicians around the world in electioneering.

But it was not only governments and gays in the s and s who struggled to capture the meaning of AIDS; so too did western medicine. It was its lack of success at turning AIDS into a meaningful scientific category that, in fact, opened the medical profession to pointed confrontation, and opened up AIDS to the visual politics of identity. In effect, through AIDS, and in particular through the early debate over whether HIV caused AIDS, the medical profession was pulled off its pulpit as the authoritative arbiter of modern secular identity.

However, this was far from how the image was regarded by others. Although in different contexts reactions varied, overall it was greeted with howls of moral indignation and in some places to the sacking of Benetton shops. The Germans took the image to court, French billstickers refused to post it and, in Britain, The Guardian the first newspaper to run it as a full-page advertisement was inundated with letters of complaint. While many in the gay community responded to it favourably, others criticised it as a form of cultural and economic imperialism. But, again, there was no hint of it at the show in Hamburg.

Thus—although not with conscious intent—the show flew in the face of the preoccupations of the visual theorists and AIDS activists of the s and s. This was not the only way in which the exhibition displaced the specific and general historical meanings attached to these objects by investing them with others.

First and foremost it constructed a particular framework for their perception, one that above all suggested that aesthetic form can travel the world regardless of local geographies and local histories of ethnicity, religion, race, rights, sexuality and gender—not to mention alternative aesthetic traditions.

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But that, too, was hardly the case at the point of production of many of these posters. In the s, Christian fundamentalists and other religionists took a rather different line, and gay men and lesbians did not always see government campaigns against AIDS as being against AIDS so much as against themselves. Moreover, the relative power of those interests was hierarchically organised, and differently so over time, as Virginia Berridge has made clear for the history of AIDS in the UK. Through the mixing of posters from different countries, the exhibition dissolved the conventional boundaries between nation-states, while the multitude of images of condoms that it presented served visually to re-unite them around a commercial product.

At a closer look, however, it both appropriated them into an old script a local and fondly held modernist epistemology of viewing and aesthetics and a new one—globalisation. There was no conspiracy in this. This poster was also translated into many languages. Nor has it been merely to expose how these often strikingly visual objects that aimed at protecting individual health had their meaning changed through appropriation into a conceptual framework different from that of their initial contexts of production and consumption.

More interesting to us are the intrinsic and unremitting links between these visual objects and wider politics, or how the visual is inherently a part of the latter. While it might have been supposed that AIDS posters came to political rest once they were retired, categorised, catalogued and stored according to the principles of collecting institutions, the Hamburg exhibition proves otherwise. But what the analysis of its exhibition of AIDS posters also shows is that old and seemingly a political agendas invented to express specific national political interests are neither lost nor rendered innocuous in the contemporary world.

Postmodernists, unconcerned with that view for the most part, in effect opened the space for the new politics of aesthetics that masks something different: the idea of aesthetics as void of political intention. Whereas for Brinckmann in the nineteenth century, aesthetics in art could be consciously used for the political purpose of populist democracy, with aesthetics and politics in clearly separate spheres, for the inheritors of his institution in Hamburg aesthetics unbeknownst to them became the politics, not simple a means to it.

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Installed in its place were the politics of the appearance of political un-intention. Thus did an aesthetic concept born in the nineteenth century to serve nationalistic purposes come to operate for the political work of educating national citizens to global citizenship. What does this mean for historians working with material objects stored in global-tending museums and archives and who are themselves now operating within a global framework?

Would that it were quite that simple, though.

Thus the global provides a new grand narrative—a universalising tool—with which to reimpose the meta-narrativity of history. Just as with material objects or words or images there is no meaning to historical events outside the conceptual frameworks we wittingly or unwittingly apply to them. In short, there exists no resting place for history writing; it is always already fashioned and fashioning. History writing, too, in other words, as a product of its time, cannot avoid making up historical consciousness.

It might even be seen to compound the problem by drawing attention to spaces where, a priori , the historian is already politically and epistemologically implicated: the museum and the archive. Elasticity, piezoelectricity and new models of continua with nonlinearity, viscosity and some generalized features microstructure, weak or strong nonlocality or unusual situations bounding surface with energy, elastic thin film glued on a surface waveguide , are considered, exhibiting thus the versatility of the approach.

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This original book offers an innovative vision and treatment of the problems of wave propagation in deformable solids. It opens up new horizons in the theoretical and applied facets of physical acoustics. Continuum thermomechanics : the art and science of modelling material behaviour by G.

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  5. A Maugin 25 editions published between and in English and Spanish and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Contributed by world-renowned specialists on the occasion of Paul Germain's 80th birthday, this unique book reflects the foundational works and the intellectual influence of this author.

    It presents the realm of modern thermomechanics with its extraordinary wealth of applications to the behaviour of materials, whether solid or fluid. The thirty-one contributions follow an easygoing autobiographical sketch by Paul Germain, and highlight the power and richness of a methodological approach to the phenomenology of many materials.

    This approach combines harmoniously thermodynamics and continuum theory in order to provide exploitable, thermodynamically admissible models of a large variety of behaviours and phenomena, including those of diffusion, thermoelasticity, viscoplasticity, relaxation, hysteresis, wetting, shape-memory effects, growth, phase transitions, stability, fracture, shocks, machining of materials, microstructured solids, complex fluids, etc. Especially aimed at graduate students, researchers, and engineers in mechanical engineering and materials science, this book also presents the state of the art in an active field of research and opens new horizons in other scientific fields, such as applied mathematics and applied physics, because of the intellectual satisfaction and remarkable efficiency provided by the advocated approach.

    Mechanics of material forces by Paul Steinmann 18 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide In this single volume the reader will find all recent developments in one of the most promising and rapidly expanding branches of continuum mechanics, the mechanics of material forces.

    The book covers both theoretical and numerical developments. Conceptually speaking, common continuum mechanics in the sense of Newton? Well-known examples of material forces are driving forces on defects like the Peach-Koehler forece, the J-Integral in fracture mechanics, and energy release. The consideration of material forces goes back to the works of Eshelby, who investigated forces on defects; therefore this area of continuum mechanics is sometimes denoted Eshelbian mechanics.

    Audience This book is suitable for civil and mechanical engineers, physicists and applied mathematicians. Continuum mechanics through the twentieth century : a concise historical perspective by G. A Maugin 13 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide This overview of the development of continuum mechanics throughout the twentieth century is unique and ambitious.

    Utilizing a historical perspective, it combines an exposition on the technical progress made in the field and a marked interest in the role played by remarkable individuals and scientific schools and institutions on a rapidly evolving social background. It underlines the newly raised technical questions and their answers, and the ongoing reflections on the bases of continuum mechanics associated, or in competition, with other branches of the physical sciences, including thermodynam. The mechanics of material forces, originated in the works of Eshelby, provides a rational framework for the description of driving forces on evolving inhomogeneities and structural changes in continua.

    The general eshelbian mechanics formulation comes up with a unifying t.

    Continuum Mechanics Through the Twentieth Century

    The thermomechanics of nonlinear irreversible behaviors : an introduction by G. Continuum mechanics through the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries : historical perspectives from john bernoulli to ernst hellinger by G. A Maugin 15 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Conceived as a series of more or less autonomous essays, the present book critically exposes the initial developments of continuum thermo-mechanics in a post Newtonian period extending from the creative works of the Bernoullis to the First World war, i.

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    It highlights the role of scientists who left essential prints in this history of scientific ideas. The book shows how the formidable developments that blossomed in the twentieth century and perused in a previous book of the author in the same Springer Series: "Continuum Mechanics through the Twentieth Century", Springer found rich compost in the constructive foundational achievements of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The pre-WWI situation is well summarized by a thorough analysis of treatises Appell, Hellinger published at that time.

    English translations by the author of most critical texts in French or German are given to the benefit of the readers. The thermomechanics of plasticity and fracture by G.